Several blood tests are available which help us to determine the problem with fertility.
Routine Investigations – A Complete Blood Count (CBC) gives a measure of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets in your blood. It helps in diagnosis of several conditions like infections, anemia and other blood disorders.
General Hormonal Tests -
- Serum TSH - A thyroid - stimulating hormone (TSH) blood test is used to detect proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Hypo or hyperthyroidism in both men and women, may be the cause of infertility.
- Serum Prolactin (PRL) - The hormone prolactin is made by the pituitary gland and causes milk production. In non-pregnant condition, high level of prolactin interferes with the egg production and ovulation process. It is indicated in irregular or no menses, infertility and abnormal nipple discharge. The test is done in men when there is a difficulty getting an erection, or if there might be a problem with the pituitary gland.
- Serum Estradiol - It is used to measure a woman’s ovarian function and to evaluate the quality of the eggs.
- Serum Progesterone - Progesterone is a female hormone produced by the ovaries during ovulation. It causes the endometrial lining of the uterus to get thicker, making it receptive for a fertilized egg.
- Serum Testosterone - It affects the sexual functioning of both men and women. In men, it is used to find the inability to get an erection, or infertility. In women, it is used to determine the cause of irregular periods.
- Serum FSH & LH - Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) helps to control a woman’s menstrual cycle and the production of eggs while luteinizing hormone (LH) is linked to ovarian hormone production and egg maturation. In men, it regulates the production and transportation of sperm.
- AMH (Ovarian Reserve) Test - Ovarian reserve refers to the number of viable eggs that are left in a woman's ovaries. Unlike men, who produce sperm throughout their adult life, women are born with their lifetime supply of eggs. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a hormone secreted by cells in developing egg sacs (follicles), and the level of AMH in a woman’s blood can provide an insight into the remaining quantity of eggs and number of fertile years a woman has remaining, although it does not give any information about the quality of the eggs.
- Vit B12 and Vit D3 - Vitamin B12 or folate levels are important for identifying anemia and is associated with recurrent abortions. D3 vitamin levels are associated with infertility in women. In men vitamin deficiency is correlated with low sperm count and abnormal sperm morphology.
- HIV, HBsAg and VDRL Tests – It is done to detect whether the patient has AIDS, Hepatitis B or Syphilis, respectively. Treating this viral infection is extremely important before starting the infertility treatment.
- Blood Sugar - Fasting and PP” Blood sugar levels can be affecting your chances of becoming pregnant. Therefore, checking blood sugar and insulin levels becomes important in infertility testing.
- Lipid Profile – It is done in diabetic patients or patients with family history of diabetes and/or hypertension to detect the cholesterol levels. In men, abnormal lipid profile is associated with abnormal semen parameters.